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Book Takeaways: The Ten Faces of Innovation by Tom Kelley

Written and based on the experiences of Tom Kelley, the general manager at IDEO, this book is a great read and I highly recommend it to anyone involved in product management.

  • Send the Devil’s Advocate to hell

The Devil’s Advocate is one of the main reasons why ideas never foster. Be critical and analytical about innovation in your organization but take the inherent negativity that comes with the Devil’s Advocate persona out of the innovation process. As Kelley points out, “the Devil’s Advocate encourages idea-wreckers to assume the most negative possible perspective, one that sees only the downside, the problems, the disasters-in-waiting.” And I must agree with Kelley the Devil’s Advocate is just a copout for idea-wreckers.

  • Develop a sense of “Vuja De”

The key to problem solving is to be able to identify the problem in the first place. It sounds intuitive and simple yet many research projects have flaws in the problem statement. To recognize problems one must be a good observer – one without prejudice. Good observers experience things with a “beginners mind” and they approach fieldwork with the principle of Vuja De, which is exactly the opposite of déjà vu. Vuja De is a sense of perceiving something for the first time, even if you have experienced it many times before.

  • It’s all about t-shaped people

A t-shaped person is someone who knows a little bit about a lot of things and is also a specialist in a specific subject. Kelley suggests that this is what they look for when they hire at IDEO and I believe one should aspire to be a t-shaped individual. Knowing a little about everything seems easy to me: just read the news everyday and add some diversity to the people you hang out with and voilà. On the other hand, becoming a true specialist at something takes time, dedication, and passion.

  • When creating something new-to-the-world focus groups are useless

My best marketing professors all disliked focus groups and they were always happy to list all the reasons why: small sample size, dominant personalities, biased settings, skewed results, and so on. Kelley doesn’t express such a strong adverse opinion of focus groups and seems to believe that sometimes they may be appropriate. But when you are creating a new-to-the-world product Kelley believes in “Unfocus Groups.” These groups feature extreme people that are passionate about a product. Unfocus groups use props, prototypes, observations, and brainstorming to inspire innovative themes and concepts.

  • Implement innovation programs no matter what your company does

I must say that The Director chapter was my favorite because it gave me some concrete ideas that I can try to implement at work. This chapter suggests that companies schedule brainstorming sessions that get all the employees involved in the product development process. The chapter offers many benefits from such an innovation program and there are several recommendations on how to structure it. If you are involved in product management or development I strongly recommend you take a look at this chapter.

  • Map the customer journey

The importance of understanding your customers and their experience with your products can’t be emphasized enough. Kelley offers some insight from his background, “the journey nearly always has more steps than people first imagine.” It is also important to look at the entire customer journey, which sometimes may begin before the customer purchases your product (just like it can end after you have delivered it). Make sure you are looking at the entire picture.

  • And finally, don’t forget to smile

Smiles are free and they go a long way, especially with customer service.

Fernando Elizalde

Opinion: Let’s Get Ready to Rumble: Google takes on Apple

*The original post can be found on Border Stylo, makers of Glass.

So the two-year contract with your mobile service provider is up and it is time to get a smartphone. Exciting weeks lie ahead as you read through phone specs online, ask your techie friends for reviews, and visit retail locations to play with the latest gadgets. Never has the decision to purchase a new phone seemed so transcendental. Gone are the days when phone selection was limited to five models from two manufacturers, and one always chose the free one. Competition and choice make consumers happy, and these days, we are swamped with options. But behind the plethoric veil of gadgets there is a more fundamental decision that must be made first: Apple’s iOS or Google’s Android.

When it comes to operating systems and technology standards, sometimes less is more. I was happy when Blu-ray conquered HD-DVD in the latest consumer electronics war. I never really understood which technology was better, but once they finished duking it out, I could finally buy a high-definition DVD player without worrying. Like two heavyweight pugilists, Apple and Android are going through a similar struggle and it seems like it was go 12 rounds.

Unlike Google, Apple has maintained an overprotective business strategy and opts to keep their mobile operating system (iOS) proprietary instead of licensing it out to phone manufacturers. Does this remind anybody of their approach with computers’ OS in the early 80s? Microsoft pushed Windows to most major computer manufacturers while Apple continuously tried to create a superior product only they could use. Undeniably, this was a poor business decision. While Microsoft colonized the computer landscape, Apple was close to extinction and became a niche player used mainly by people in academia. Yet, thanks to Steve Jobs’ now heavily documented turnaround and restructuring of Apple, the company is now the second most valuable in the world (worth close to $320 billion, which is $100 billion more than Microsoft). But before we pop the champagne bottle and celebrate Apple’s success, it is important to see how their business strategy will play out in the mobile space since mobile, as we all know, will rule the world.

Will Apple pigeonhole itself as a niche player again? Will Apple license its software in the future? Will their media infrastructure help them weather the storm and come out on top?

The upcoming months will shed some light on the future of mobile. Recent reports of Android surpassing Apple in terms of mobile phone shipments may be an early sign that the tide is turning. I recently switched from BlackBerry to Android given that I speculate Google will come out on top.

Content in the form of media and apps is the driving force behind smartphones. On the media front, Apple has established an early lead with the iTunes platform, but as cloud computing and streaming services go mobile, Apple’s media advantage will fade away. In the app space, Google has encouraged a decentralized marketplace and this will allow specialization throughout the distribution chain. Rumor has Amazon working on an Android app store that is expected to launch in the near future. Why would Google allow and even encourage competition with its Android Market? Because their goal in mobile is not to monetize apps, or at least I don’t think it should be.

Remember, Google’s main revenue driver is their search. Therefore, their main objective with mobile should be to become the default search engine on every mobile phone on the planet. The best way to do that is to make sure they are the operating system on your phone. So an unofficial partner like Amazon that knows how to create user-friendly marketplaces will help Android grow and increase Google’s chances of monopolizing mobile search for good. Maybe in the not-so-distant future Google will be demonized in the tech community like Microsoft was. So much for their informal corporate motto: “don’t be evil.”

I’m clearly making a lot of assumptions and I may be jumping to conclusions, so keep in mind that’s just my take on things and I can be wrong – Steve Jobs certainly hopes so. As far as actually choosing a phone? Go out and play with as many phones as you can. Just know, you’ll also be placing an early bet on your favorite contender.

Fernando Elizalde

Opinion: Dunbar’s Number and the Power of Meaningless Friends

Robin Dunbar in a recent New York Times Op-Ed claimed that “most of us can maintain only around 150 meaningful relationships.” This is known as Dunbar’s number. According to this hypothesis and assuming all 150 meaningful relationships I maintain are in my list of Facebook friends, then I have 343 “meaningless” Facebook friends (I have 493 friends for those of you who, like me, are not good at air math). This is probably an underestimation – most likely close to 450 of my approximately 500 friends are “meaningless.” Yet in this majority lies the power of social media.

Let’s say I’m planning a trip to New Zealand and I do not know any Kiwis that I can call up to get the inside scoop. I can go old school and call/email/telegraph my 150 meaningful relationships and spend several hours trying to find out if someone has been to New Zealand. Or I can post a quick Facebook status update broadcasting my trip. Hopefully one of my 450 “meaningless” friends from my Facebook realm will pick up the update and provide me with useful information. Maybe my “meaningless” friend from Australia will hook me up with some good places to eat and drink and maybe even a place to crash. If unsuccessful, I will be left with a few “meaningless” good wishes, jealous remarks, and funny comments on my wall. Still, considering I updated my status from my Smartphone during the lunch break it was definitely worth the shot.

During lunch I was also thinking about pursuing a Certificate in Marketing from a local college I like. A quick search through my Facebook contacts and I find that that guy I met at that cocktail party back in that now “meaningless” friend’s apartment went to that school I’m considering. Hey, shoot him a quick message and cross fingers for a response. None of my 150 meaningful friends went to that school. On second thought, one actually did but he dropped out during the first semester to pursue his rock star dreams so, even though he represents a meaningful relationship in my life, in this case I would rather talk to the “meaningless” guy who actually graduated.

And that reminds me of that girl who constantly sends me spam through Facebook advertising her new single or her next gig at some bar in Hollywood. So annoying! Delete her! Oh wait, she is friends with my roommate (of course my roommate is one of my meaningful friends). So I can’t delete her. Next thing I know I will be chastised for being unsupportive of struggling, yet talented artists. Ok, I’ll go to her next show and pay the $20 cover. Damn me for being one of her “meaningless” friends.

Fernando Elizalde